Drosophila fly article dating before 1950
(A) A single MP tree constructed with un-weighted scheme (tree length = 3233; CI = 0.4930; RI = 0.5581); (B) A single MP tree constructed with six-parameter weighting scheme (tree length = 2313.3101, CI = 0.5016, RI = 0.6059); (C) ML tree (-ln Phylogenetic trees based on AA data set. The comparison between the empirical and average CFDs with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test .(A) Strict consensus of 17 equally parsimonious trees (tree length = 433, CI = 0.7367, RI = 0.7355); (B) Bayesian tree inferred with the Poisson model, with gamma-distributed rate variation across sites and a proportion of invariable sites; (C) Bayesian tree inferred with the GTR model, with gamma-distributed rate variation across sites and a proportion of invariable sites. Shaded areas (gray) indicate the time span of temperate forest developing in the Northern Hemisphere . It is clearly seen that the CFD of the KITSCH tree begins to deflect upwards from the average CFD at a relative early stage of the branching process, suggesting an ancient cluster of branching events during the evolutionary history of the species group is investigated with dense taxon-sampling from the Old World, especially the Oriental region, using both nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of multiple loci.) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930's.Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical 'rapid radiation' history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the 'rapid radiation' hypothesis.group (41 species assigned to six subgroups) are mostly inhabitants of temperate forest throughout the Holarctic region, with some can adapted into high-elevation temperate-like habitats in the Afrotropical, Neotropical and Oriental regions.Some of these species (e.g., group as a whole: different studies employed different set of taxa, with species from the Afrotropical region (5 species) and Oriental region (8 described 2 undescribed species) have rarely been investigated [ Gene loci sampled in the present study.Numbers besides nodes are bootstrap values of 1000 replicates in (A); those in (B) and (C) are posterior probabilities. The numbers in the circle indicate the calibration points, and those in the panes indicate the estimated intervals of divergence times in light of the calibration points. The results corroborate some previously well-recognized relationships, and shed some new light on the evolutionary history of the ], if this relationship is true, MP method is prone to positively recover it, thus seems to perform as good as, or even better than ML method.For some very recent divergences, the estimates are not shown. Otherwise, ML will outperform MP by recovering the true relationship.
As it turned out, Morgan confirmed Mendelian laws of inheritance and the hypothesis that genes are located on chromosomes.But Morgan's discoveries with white- and red-eyed flies led him to reconsider each of these hypotheses.In particular, Morgan began to entertain the possibility that association of eye color and sex in fruit flies had a physical and mechanistic basis in the chromosomes.Numbers show aligned lengths and numbers of parsimony informative sites (PI, given in parentheses) for nucleotide or translated amino acid sequences of each locus. For each comparison, ratios of ti/tv for pairs of sequences (Y-coordinate) are graphed versus the corresponding numbers of total substitutions (X-coordinate). group species (a KITSCH tree; not shown) is constructed under an assumption of molecular clock, therefore all the terminal taxa on this tree are shown as contemporaneous.